EKSTRAKSI SENYAWA FENOL DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DARI BUAH CABAI RAWIT DENGAN METODE MICROWAVE ASSISTED EXTRACTION

Joni Kusnadi, Dedi Dedi, Yunianta Yunianta, Estri Laras Arumingtyas
  JTP, pp. 181-190  

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Pertimbangan dalam pemilihan metode ekstraksi untuk mendapatkan senyawa bioaktif dari bahan tanaman diantaranya adalah efisiensi waktu dan jumlah pelarut yang digunakan. Studi terdahulu menunjukan ekstraksi bahan aktif dengan gelombang mikro mempercepat waktu ekstraksindan menghemat penggunaan pelarut dibandingkan metode konvensional, tetapi waktu ekstraksibyang terlalu singkat dan penggunaan pelarut yang terlalu minim membuat hasil ekstraksi tidaknoptimal. Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh rasio bahan:pelarut dan lama ekstraksi dengan gelombang mikro terhadap kandungan fitokimia dan aktivitas antioksidan dari ekstrak cabai rawit. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok 2 faktor yaitu rasio bahan:pelarut dengan variasi 1:5; 1:10; dan 1:15, serta lama ekstraksi (5, 10, dan 15 menit). Berdasarkan hasil pengujian, rasio bahan:pelarut 1:10 memberikan hasil terbaik untuk kadar total capsaicinoid, total fenol, total flavonoid, dan aktivitas antioksidan dengan nilai rata-rata sebesar 138.06 ± 6.35 mg CE/g BK ekstrak, 33.75 ± 1.75 mg GAE/g BK ekstrak, 205.41 ± 26.13 mg QE/g BK ekstrak, dan 447.96 ±25.63 μg/ml. Lama ekstraksi untuk menghasilkan nilai total capsaicinoid dan total fenol paling tinggi adalah 5 menit, sedangkan untuk total flavonoid pada waktu 10 dan 15 menit. Nilai IC50 memiliki korelasi yang linear dengan total capsaicinoid, total fenol, dan total flavonoid. Pemilihan perlakuan terbaik dengan metode multiple atribut menunjukan rasio bahan:pelarut 1:10 dan lama ekstraksi 10 menit merupakan kombinasi perlakuan paling optimal untuk ekstraksi senyawa fenol menggunakan Microwave Assisted Extraction

 

ABSTRACT

The consideration of extraction methods to obtain bioactive compounds of plant origin were the time efficiency and the amount of extraction solvent. Previous studies showed that microwave assisted extraction of active ingredients decrease the extraction time and minimize the solvent compared to conventional methods, but short extraction time and less solvents make extraction less optimal. The aim of this study to determine the effect of materials:solvent and extraction time of microwave assisted extraction to phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of the cayenne pepper extract. The study was conducted using a Randomized Block Design 2 factors of the ratio of material:solvent (1:5; 1:10; and 1:15) and extraction time (5, 10, and 15 min). The results showed that material:solvent ratio of 1:10 gave the best value for total capsaicinoid content, total phenol, total flavonoid and IC50 with average value of 138.06 ± 6.35 mg CE/g DW, 33.75 ± 1.75 mg GAE/g DW extract, 205.41 ± 26.13 mg QE/g DW extract, and 447.96 ± 25.63 μg/ml respectively. The optimal extraction time to generate total capsaicinoid and total phenol content was 5 minutes, while the optimal extraction time for total flavonoid was 10 and 15 minutes. IC50 in this study had a linear correlation with total capsaicinoid, total phenol, and total flavonoid. The best treatment with multiple attribute method showed the materials:solvent ratio of 1:10 and extraction time of 10 minutes was the most optimal treatment combination for extraction of phenol compound by microwave assisted extraction


Keywords


Antioksidan; Capsaicinoid; Flavonoid; Microwave Assisted Extraction

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