PENGARUH ASAL BIJI KAKAO DAN LAMA CONCHING TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK SENSORI COKELAT HITAM DENGAN PENDEKATAN DISCRETE TIME INTENSITY

La Ode Muhammad Fajrul Azhar, Kiki Fibrianto, Sukrisno Widyotomo, Harijono Harijono
  JTP, pp. 1-14  

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Kakao merupakan salah satu komoditas andalan di Indonesia. Pengolahan kakao menjadi cokelat merupakan salah satu cara untuk meningkatkan nilai tambah kakao. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh asal biji kakao dan lama conching terhadap karakteristik sensori cokelat hitam. Cokelat dibuat dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan dua faktor yaitu asal biji kakao (100% biji kakao fermentasi Jember, 100% biji kakao fermentasi Sulawesi Tenggara, 50% biji kakao fermentasi Jember + 50% biji kakao nonfermentasi Sulawesi Tenggara, dan 50% biji kakao fermentasi Sulawesi Tenggara + 50% biji kakao nonfermentasi Sulawesi Tenggara) dan lama conching (4, 6, dan 8 jam). Analisa sensori dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan panelis terlatih dengan menggunakan metode discrete time intensity. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa kekerasan dan kekenyalan tertinggi yaitu pada perlakuan 100% biji kakao fermentasi Jember dengan lama conching 8 jam yaitu 12.6 dan 11.9 pada detik ke-30, kekompakan tertinggi yaitu pada perlakuan 50% biji kakao fermentasi Sulawesi Tenggara + 50% biji kakao nonfermentasi Sulawesi Tenggara dengan lama conching 8 jam yaitu 12.4 pada detik ke-30 dan kelengketan yang tertinggi yaitu pada perlakuan 100% biji kakao fermentasi Jember dengan lama conching 4 jam yaitu 5.9 pada detik ke 120

 

ABSTRACT

Cocoa is one of the largest commodities in Indonesia. Processing cocoa into chocolate is a way to increase the added of cocoa value. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cocoa bean origin and length of conching on sensory characteristics of dark chocolate. Chocolate was made using a completely randomized block design with factorial design consisting of two factors cocoa bean origin (100% Jember fermented cocoa beans, 100% Southeast Sulawesi fermented cocoa beans, 50% Jember fermented cocoa beans + 50% Southeast Sulawesi non-fermented cocoa beans and 50% Southeast Sulawesi fermented cocoa beans + 50% Southeast Sulawesi non-fermented cocoa beans) and length of conching (4, 6, and 8 hours). Analysis sensory using trained panelist with discrete time intensity method. The analysis showed that the highest hardness and gumminess at 100% Jember fermented cocoa beans with length of conching 8 hours is 12.6 and 11.9 at 30 seconds. The highest cohesiveness at 50% fermented cocoa beans Southeast Sulawesi+ 50% non-fermented cocoa beans from Southeast Sulawesi with length of conching 8 hours is 12.4 at 30 seconds. The highest adhesiveness at 100% Jember fermented cocoa beans with length of conching 4 hours is 5.9 at 120 seconds


Keywords


Cokelat; Discrete Time Intensity; Kakao; Karakteristik Sensori

Full Text:

PDF

References


Afoakwa, EO. 2010. Chocolate Science and Technology. John Wiley & Sons, England

Afoakwa, E, O, Paterson, A, Fowler, M. 2007. Factor influencing rheological and textural qualities in chocolate – a review. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 18(6):290-298

Andrae-Nightingale, L, M, Lee, S, Y, Engeseth, N, J. 2009. Textural changes in chocolate characterized by instrumental and sensory techniques. Journal of Texture Studies. 40(4):427-444

Ariyanti, N, S, Bos, M, M, Kartawinata, K, Tjitrosoedirdjo, S, S, Guhardja, E, Gradstein, S, R. 2008. Bryophytes on tree trunks in natural forests, selectively logged forests and cacao agroforests in central sulawesi, indonesia. Biological Conservation. 141(10):2516-2527

Belščak-Cvitanović, A, Komes, D, Dujmović, M, Karlović, S, Biškić, M, Brnčić, M, Ježek, D. 2015. Physical, bioactive and sensory quality parameters of reduced Afoakwa, EO. 2010. Chocolate Science and Technology. John Wiley & Sons, England

Afoakwa, E, O, Paterson, A, Fowler, M. 2007. Factor influencing rheological and textural qualities in chocolate – a review. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 18(6):290-298

Andrae-Nightingale, L, M, Lee, S, Y, Engeseth, N, J. 2009. Textural changes in chocolate characterized by instrumental and sensory techniques. Journal of Texture Studies. 40(4):427-444

Ariyanti, N, S, Bos, M, M, Kartawinata, K, Tjitrosoedirdjo, S, S, Guhardja, E, Gradstein, S, R. 2008. Bryophytes on tree trunks in natural forests, selectively logged forests and cacao agroforests in central sulawesi, indonesia. Biological Conservation. 141(10):2516-2527

Belščak-Cvitanović, A, Komes, D, Dujmović, M, Karlović, S, Biškić, M, Brnčić, M, Ježek, D. 2015. Physical, bioactive and sensory quality parameters of reduced sugar chocolates formulated with natural sweeteners as sucrose alternatives. Food Chemistry. 167:61-70

Bornhorst, G, M, Hivert, H, Singh, R, P. 2014. Rice bolus texture changes due to α-amylase. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 55(1):27-33

Brighenti, M, Govindasamy-Lucey, S, Lim, K, Nelson, K, Lucey, J, A. 2008. Characterization of the rheological, textural and sensory properties of samples of commercial US cream cheese with different fat contents. J. Dairy Sci. 91(12):4501-4517

Cadena, R, S, Bolini, H, M, A. 2011. Time-intensity analysis and acceptance test for traditional and light vanilla ice cream. Food Research International. 44(3):677–683

Chale-Rush, A, Burgess, J, R, Mattes, R, D. 2007. Multiple routes of chemo-sensitivity to free fatty acids in humans. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 292(5):1206-1212

Chen, J. 2015. Food oral processing: mechanism and implications of food oral destruction. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 45(2):222-228

Davit, M, J, Yusuf, R, P, Yudari, D, A, S. 2013. Pengaruh cara pengolahan kakao fermentasi dan non fermentasi terhadap kualitas, harga jual produk pada unit usaha produktif (UUP) tunjung sari, kabupaten tabanan. E-Jurnal Agribisnis dan Agrowisata. 2(4):191-203

de Morais, E, C, Cruz, A, G, Bolini, H, M, A. 2013. Gluten-free bread: multiple time intensity analysis, physical characterisation and acceptance test. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 48(10):2176–2184

de Ávila, M, D, R, Cambero, M, I, Ordóñez, J, A, de la Hoz, L, Herrero, A, M. 2014. Rheological behaviour of commercial cooked meat products evaluated by tensile test and texture profile analysis (TPA). Meat Science. 98(2):310-315

Kementerian Pertanian. 2013. Peningkatan produksi, produktivitas dan mutu tanaman rempah dan penyegar. Dilihat 20 Agustus 2017.

Fernandez V, A, Müller, A, J, Sandoval A, J. 2013. Thermal, structural and rheological of dark chocolate with different composition. Journal Food Engineering. 116(1):97-108

Gaikwad, V. 2012. Oral Processing of Dark Chocolate. Tesis. The Riddet Institute, Massey University. New Zealand

Gu, F, Tan, L, Wu, H, Fang, Y, Xu, F, Chu, Z, Wang, Q. 2013. Comparison of cocoa beans from china, indonesia and papua new guinea. Foods. 2(2):183-197

Ishihara, S, Nakauma, M, Funami, T, Odake, S, Nishinari, K. 2011. Swallowing profiles of food polysaccharide gels in relation to bolus rheology. Food Hydrocolloids. 25(5):1016-1024

Jovanovic, O, L, Pajin, B, S. 2002. Sensory and instrumental evaluation of physical characteristics of laboratory – made chocolate. Dilihat 25 September 2017.

search.do?recordID=YU2003000725>

Khan, N, A, Besnard, P. 2009. Oro-sensory perception of dietary lipids: new insights into the fat taste transduction. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1791(3):149-155

Kikuchi, T, Michiwaki, Y, Koshizuka, S, Kamiya, T, Toyama, Y. 2017. Numerical simulation of interaction between organs and food bolus during swallowing and aspiration. Computers in Biology and Medicine. 80:114-123

Lada, Y, G, Supriyanto, Darmadji, P. 2014. Pengaruh perendaman biji kakao kering dan bahan alat sangrai terhadap sifat fisik dan profil senyawa volatil kakao sangrai serta sifat sensoris cokelat batang yang dihasilkan. AGRITECH. 34(4):439-447

Lee, S, Heuberger, M, Rousset, P, Spencer, N, D. 2002. Chocolate a sliding interface. Journal of Food Science. 67(7):2712-2716

Lorido, L, Estévez, M, Ventanas, S. 2014. A novel approach to asses temporal sensory perception of muscle foods: application of a time-intensity techniques to diverse iberian meat products. Meat

Sci. 96(1):385-393

Mattes, R, D. 2011. Oral fatty acid signaling and intestinal lipid processing: support and supposition. Physiol Behav. 105(1):27-35

Menezes, A, G, T, Batista, N, N, Ramos C, L, Andrade e Silva, A, R, Efraim, P Pinheiro, A, C, M, Schwan R, F. 2016. Investigation of chocolate produced from four different brazilian varieties of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) inoculated with Saccharomyces cerivisiae. Food Research International. 81:83-90

Moraes, P, C, B, T, Bolini, H, M, A. 2010. Different sweeteners in beverages prepared with instant and roasted ground coffee: Ideal and equivalent sweetness. Journal of Sensory Studies. 25(1):1–11

Morais, E, C, Pinheiro, A, C, M, Nunes, C, A, Bolini, H, M, A. 2014. Multiple time- intensity analysis and temporal dominance of sensations of chocolate dairy dessert using prebiotic and different

high-intensity sweeteners. Journal of Sensory Studies. 29(5):339-350

Munarso, S, J. 2016. Penanganan pascapanen untuk peningkatan mutu dan daya saing komoditas kakao. Jurnal LitbangPertanian. 33(3):111-120

Novianti, AL. 2015. Profile Time Intensity Pemanis Alami DCPC (Deionized Clarified Pineapple Concentrate) dari Hasil Samping Pengolahan Nenas. Skripsi. IPB. Bogor

Palazzo, A, B, Bolini, H, M, A. 2014. Multiple time-intensity analysis: sweetness, bitterness, chocolate flavor and melting rate of chocolate with sucralose, rebaudioside and neotame. Journal of Sensory Studies. 29(1):21-32

Palazzo A, B, Carvalho M, A, R, Efraim, P, Bolini, H, M, A. 2011. The determination of isosweetness concentrations of sucralose, rebaudioside and neotame as sucrose substitutes in new diet chocolate formulations using the time intensity analysis. Journal of Sensory Studies. 26(4):291-297

Pascua, Y, Koç, H, Foegeding, E, A. 2013. Food structure: roles of mechanical properties and oral processing in determining sensory texture of soft materials. Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science. 18(4):324-333

Paula, A, M, Conti-Silva, A, C. 2014. Texture profile and correlation between sensory and instrumental analyses on extruded snacks. Journal of Food Engineering. 121:9-14

Peyron, M, A, Gierczynski, I, Hartman, C, Loret, C, Dardevet, D, Martin, N, Woda, A. 2011. Role of physical bolus properties as sensory input In the trigger of swallowing. PLoS ONE. 6(6):e21167

Peyvieux, C, Dijksterhuis, G. 2001. Training a sensory panel for TI: a case study. Food Quality and Preference. 12(1):19-28

Pionnier, E, Nicklaus, S, Chabanet, C, Mioche, L, Taylor, A, J, Le Quéré, J, L, Salles, C. 2004. Flavor perception of a model cheese: relationships with oral and physic-chemical parameters. Food Quality and Preference. 15(7-8):843-852

Poppenborg, P, Hölscher, D. 2009. The influence of emergent trees on rainfall distribution in a cacao agroforest (sulawesi, indonesia). Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants. 204(10):730-736

Rizo, A, Peña, E, Alarcon-Rojo, A, D, Fiszman, S, Tarrega, A. 2018. Relating texture perception of cooked ham to the bolus evolution in the mouth. Food Research International

Rubiyo, Siswanto. 2012. Peningkatan produksi dan pengembangan kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) di indonesia. Buletin RISTRI. 3(1):33-48

Sanchez, L, Perez, MD. 2012. ‘Physical Properties of Dairy Products’. Dalam I Arana (ed.). Physical Properties of Foods: Novel Measurement Techniques and Application. CRC Press, Florida

Shah, A, B, Jones, G, P, Vasiljevic, T. 2010. Sucrose-free chocolate sweetened with Stevia rebaudiana extract and containing different bulking agents-effect on physicochemical and sensory properties. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 45:1426-1435

Suwastika, I, N, Muslimin, Rifka, Aisyah, N, Rahmansyah, Mutmainah, Ishizaki, Y, Basri, Z, Shiina, T. 2015. Genotyping based on SSR marker on local cacao (Theobroma Cacao L.) from central sulawesi. Procedia Environmental Sciences. 28:88-91

Szczesniak, A, S. 2002. Texture is a sensory property. Food Quality and Preference. 13(4):215-225

Torres-Moreno, M, Torrescasana, E, Salas-Salvadó, J, Blanch, C. 2015. Nutritional composition and fatty acids profile in cocoa beans and chocolate with different geographical origin and processing conditions. Food Chemistry. 166:125-132

Wu, D, Sun, D, W, He, Y. 2014. Novel non-invasive distribution measurement of texture profile analysis (TPA) in salmon fillet by using visible and near infrared hyperspectral imaging. Food Chemistry. 145:417-426

Yoshimine, M, Nagatomi, H, Miura, H, Tanaka, Y, Arai, I. 2008. Analysis of the mechanical properties of food bolus masticated by denture weares. J. Med Dent Sci. 55(3-4):227-246

Ziegler, G, R, Mongia, G, Hollender, R. 2001. The role of particle size distribution of suspended solids in defining the sensory properties of milk chocolate. International Journal of Food Properties.

(2):353-370


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.