PENURUNAN OKSALAT PADA PROSES PERENDAMAN UMBI KIMPUL (XANTHOSOMA SAGITTIFOLIUM) DI BERBAGAI KONSENTRASI ASAM ASETAT

Rivana - Agustin, Teti Estiasih, Agustin Krisna
  JTP, pp. 191-200  

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Reduksi oksalat pada tanaman umbi-umbian sangat diperlukan terutama senyawa oksalat pada umbi kimpul yang seringkali menyebabkan rasa gatal pada rongga mulut dan tenggorokan saat dikonsumsi. Reduksi oksalat metode kimiawi yang sering digunakan adalah menggunakan asam kuat (HCl). Asam oksalat bersifat larut dalam air, sementara kalsium oksalat tidak larut dalam air tetapi larut dalam asam kuat. Penggunaan HCl menimbulkan rasa dan bau asam yang sangat kuat, sehingga diperlukan metode lain yaitu dengan menggunakan golongan asam lemah yang aman untuk dikonsumsi lebih lanjut, yaitu asam asetat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui proporsi terbaik dalam menurunkan kadar kalsium oksalat pada umbi kimpul segar. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan percobaan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) faktorial yang terdiri dari 2 faktor, faktor I adalah konsentrasi asam asetat dalam 3 level (10%, 15%, dan 20%), serta faktor II adalah lama perendaman dalam 3 level (10 menit, 20 menit, dan 30 menit). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan asam asetat dan lama perendaman dapat menurunkan kadar total oksalat pada umbi kimpul segar. Kadar total oksalat setelah perlakuan perendaman larutan asam asetat dapat menurunkan kadar total oksalat hingga 66% yaitu sebesar 443 mg/100 g. Hal ini didukung dengan hasil analisa karakteristik umbi kimpul yang diperoleh yaitu kadar air 59.51%, kadar abu 1.36%, kadar lemak 0.19%, kadar protein 2.28%, kadar karbohidrat 35.66%, kadar oksalat 1.313 mg/100 g, dan komposisi unsur kalsium oksalat pada umbi kimpul dengan perlakuan perendaman larutan asam asetat pada C sebesar 48.30%, O sebesar 49.59%, Ca sebesar 01.45%. Hasil analisa SEM didapatkan kalsium oksalat berbentuk jarum (raphide) dengan ukuran 3.944–11.47 μm

 

ABSTRACT

Oxalate reduction in tuber crops is necessary, especially oxalic compounds which cause itching in the oral cavity and throat. To reduce the oxalate, the commonly used method is chemical using strong acid (HCl). Oxalic acid is soluble in water, while calcium oxalate is insoluble in water, but dissolves in strong acids. The application of HCl cause a strong taste and smell of acids, so it takes other method in by using acetic acid. The purpose of this study was to determine the best proportion in decreasing calcium oxalate levels in cocoyam tubers. This study used a factorial Randomized Block Design (RBD) design consisting of 2 factors, factor I, was acetic acid concentration in 3 levels (10%, 15%, and 20%) and factor II, was soaking duration in 3 levels (10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes). The results showed that the treatment of acetic acid and soaking time decrease the oxalate content in cocoyam tubers. Calcium oxalate level after treatment of soaking acetic acid solution decrease the calcium oxalate level up to 66% that is equal to 443 mg/100 g. Supported result of characteristic analysis of cocoyam tuber obtained such as water content 59.51%, ash content 1.36%, fat content 0.19%, protein content 2.28%, carbohydrate 35.66%, and calcium oxalate 1.313 mg/100 g, and the composition of calcium oxalate element is cocoyam bulb with soaking treatment of acetic acid solution equal to C 48.30%, O 49.59%, Ca 01.45%. SEM analysis result obtained calcium oxalate needle shape (raphide) with size 3.944-11.47 μm


Keywords


Asam Asetat; Kalsium Oksalat; Xanthosoma sagittifolium

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