Irnia Nurika, Nur Hidayat, Novianti Adi Rohmanna



Kulit coklat merupakan sumber lignoselulosa dari limbah pertanian dengan kandungan lignin mencapai 14.7 ± 0.35% (w/w). Lignin merupakan senyawa aromatik kompleks heteropolymer yang tidak mudah dipecah secara hidrolitik, sehingga jamur pelapuk seringkali digunakan untuk mempermudah proses degradasi lignin. Pada penelitian ini digunakan jamur pelapuk putih (S. commune). Selama proses pemecahan lignin, S. commune memanfaatkan enzim peroksidase dan lakase. Akan tetapi, produksi enzim lignolitik pada jamur pelapuk putih dalam jumlah kecil, sehingga diperlukan penambahan inducer untuk meningkatkan aktivitas enzim lignolitik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan CuSO4 terhadap aktivitas enzim MnP dan Lakase pada S. commune yang berperan dalam proses pemecahan lignin sehingga dapat dihasilkan berbagai macam senyawa kimia bernilai tinggi. Tembaga dengan konsentrasi 0 mM; 0.5 mM; 1.5 mM; dan 2.5 mM ditambahkan pada S. commune dan di inkubasi selama 5 minggu. Hasil kemudian diekstrak dan diuji aktivitas enzim MnP dan Lakase menggunakan spektofotometri. Hasil menunjukkan aktivitas enzim lignolitik S. commune terbesar yaitu 0.48 IU.L-1 untuk enzim MnP pada minggu ke-4 dengan penambahan konsentrasi CuSO4 1.5 mM dan 0.18 IU.L-1 untuk enzime lakase pada minggu ke-3 dengan penambahan konsentrasi CuSO4 0.5 mM dan 1.5 mM



Agricultural waste such as cacao pod is a source of lignocellulosic with 14.7 ± 0.35% (w/w) lignin compound. Lignin is a heterogeneous aromatic complex which are difficult degradated by hydrolitic, so rot fungi needed on lignin degradation process. This researches used white rot fungi (S. commune). S. commune are known to breakdown lignin with peroxidase and laccase enzyme. However, ligninolytic enzyme are produced only small quantities, so needed induction for enhancemend and activated ligninolytic enzyme. Purpose this research is knowing affected concentration copper on MnP and Laccase activty of S.commune during degaradation of lignocellulose, so can produce various of chemical added value compound. Various consentration copper are 0 mM; 0.5 mM; 1.5 mM; and 2.5 mM added in treatment and incubated for 5 weeks. Yield extracted and MnP and Lakase activty is measured by spectrophotometry. The maximum activities enzyme synthesized by S. commune were observed as 0.48 IU.L-1 for manganese peroxidase (MnP) after 4 weeks incubation at 1.5 mM CuSO4 and 0.18 IU.L-1 for laccase after 3 weeks incubation at 0.5 mM and 1.5 mM CuSO4


Induser; Lakase; Lignin; Mangan Peroksidase; S. commune

Full Text:



Baldrian, P. 2003. Interactions of heavy metals with white-rot fungi. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 32: 78-91

Bouazizi, H, Joulili, H, Geitmann, A, El Ferjani, E. 2008. Effect of copper excess on H2O2 accumulation and peroxidase activities in bean roots. Acta Biologica Hungarica. 59(2):233-245

Daud, Z, Kassim, A, S, M, Aripin, A, M, Awang, H, Hatta, Z, M. 2013. Chemical composition and morphological of cocoa pod husks and cassava peels for pulp and paper production. Austral-

ian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 7(9):406-411

Di Gioia, D, Luziatelli, F, Negroni, A, Ficca, A, G, Fava, F, Ruzzi, M. 2011. Metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas fluorescens for the production of vanillin from ferulic acid. J. Biotechnol. 156(4):309-316

Fauzi, A, R, Haryadi, D, Priyanto, S. 2012. Pengaruh waktu fermentasi dan efektivitas adsorben dalam pembuatan bioetanol fuel grade dari limbah pod kakao (Theobroma cacao). Jurnal Teknologi Kimia dan Industri. 1(1):179-185

Gallage, N, J, Møller, B, L. 2015. Vanillin Bioconversion and bioengineering of the most popular plant flavor and its de novo biosynthesis in the vanilla Orchid. Mol. Plant. 8:40-57

Gassara, F, Brar, S, K, Tyagi, R, D, Verma, M, Surampalli, R, Y. 2010. Screening of agro-industrial wastes to produce ligninolytic enzymes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 49(3):388-394

Gedikli, S, Aytar, P, Unal, A, Yamaç, M, Çabuk, A, Kolankaya, N. 2010. Enhancement with inducers of lacasse production by some strains and application of enzyme to dechlorination of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 13(6):1-15

Gomaa, O, M, Momtaz, O, A. 2015. Tembaga induction and differential expression of laccase in Aspergillus flavus. Braz. J. Microbiol. 46(1):285-292

He, J, Zhao, C, Mei, D, Lercher, J, A. 2014. Mechanisms of selective cleavage of C–O bonds in di-aryl ethers in aqueous phase. Journal of Catalysis. 309:280-290

Hoshida, H, Nakao, M, Kanazawa, H, Kubo, K, Hakukawa, T, Morimasa, K, Akada, R, Nishizawa, Y. 2001. Isolation of five laccase gene sequences from the white-rot fungus Trametes sanguinea by PCR, and cloning, characterization and expression of the laccase cDNA in yeasts. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 92(4):372-380

Irshad, M, Asgher, M. 2011. Production and optimization of lignolytic enzymes by white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 in solid state medium banana stalks. African Journal of Biotechnology. 10(79):18234-18242

Jovanovic-Malinovska, R, Fernandes, P, Winkelhausen, E, Fonseca, L. 2012. Galacto-oligosaccharides synthesis from lactose and whey by β-galactosidase immobilized in PVA. Appl. Biochem Biotechnol. 168(5):1197-1211

Kaur, B, Chakraborty, D. 2013. Biotecnological and molecular approaches for vanillin production: a review. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 169:1353-1357

Lee, A, S, Y, Su, F, Y, Liao, Y, C. 1999. A simple and efficient hydrolyzing method for tetrahydropyranyl ethers. Tetrahedron Letters. 40(7):1323-1326

Ma, X, K, Daugulis, A, J. 2014. Effect of bioconversion conditions on vanillin production by Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 through an analysis of competing by-product formation. Bioprocess. Biosyst. Eng. 37(5):891-899

Martin-Sampedro, R, Capanema, E, A, Hoeger, I, Villar, J, C, Rojas, O, J. 2011. Lignin changes after steam explosion and laccase-mediator treatment of eucalyptuswood chips. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59(16):8761–8769

Montoya, S, Sánchez, O, J, Levin, L. 2015. Production of lignocellulolytic enzymes from three white-rot fungi by solid-state fermentation and mathematical modeling. African Journal of Biotechnol-

ogy. 14(15):1304-1317

Muslimah, S, Kuswytasari, N, D. 2013. Potensi Basidiomycetes koleksi biologi ITS sebagai agen biodekolorisasi zat warna RBBR. JURNAL SAINS DAN SENI POMITS. 2(1):2337-3520

Niemenmaa, O. 2008. Monitoring of Fungal Growth and Degradation of Wood. Disertasi. University of Helsinki. Finland

Okano, K, Kitagawa, M, Sasaki, Y, Watanabe, T. 2005. Conversion of japanese red cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) into a feed for ruminants by white-rot basidiomy-cetes. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 120(3-4):235–243

Oliva-Taravilla, A., Tomás-Pejó, E., Demuez, M., González-Fernández, C., Ballesteros, M. 2016. Phenols and lignin: Key players in reducing enzymatic hydrolysis yields of steam-pretreated biomass in presence of laccase. J. Biotechnol. 218:94-101

Padhiar, A, Kumar, N, P, Albert, S, Arya, A. 2009. Morphology, Anatomy and Cultural Characters of Two Wood Decaying Fungi Schizophyllum commune and Flavadon flavus. J. Mycol. Pl Pathol. 39(1):27-31

Sun, X, F, Xu, F, Sun, R, C, Fowler, P, Baird, M, S. 2005. Characteristics of degradedcellulose obtained from steam-exploded wheat straw. Carbohydrate Research. 340(1):97–106

Tsujiyama, S, Ueno, M. 2008. Formation of 4-Vinyl guaiacol as an intermediate in Bioconversion of ferulic acid by Schizophyllum commune. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 72(1):212-215

Usha, K, Y, Praveen, K, Reddy, B, R. 2014. Enhanced production of ligninolytic enzymes by a mushroom Stereum ostrea. Biotechnology Research International. 2014: 1-9

Ward, G, Hadar, Y, Dosoretz, CG. 2004. ‘The Biodegradation of Lignocellulose by White-rot Fungi’. Dalam DK Arora (ed.). Fungal Biotechnology in Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Applications. Marcel Dekker, New York

Widianingsih, Y. 2009. Analisis Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Permintaan Ekspor Biji Kakao di Indonesia di Malaysia, Singapura, dan Cina. Skripsi. IPB. Bogor

Werpy, T, Petersen, G. 2004. Top value added chemicals From biomass. Dilihat 27 Agustus 2017.

Witayakran, S, Ragauskas, A, J. 2009. Modification of high-lignin softwood kraftpulp with laccase and amino acids. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 44(3):176–181

Yazici, E, Y, Deveci, H. 2010. Factor affecting decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Proceedings of the XIIth International Mineral Processing Symposium, Cappadocia-Neveùehør, Turkey, pp. 609-616

Zeng, S, Qin, X, Xia, L. 2017. Degradation of the herbicide isoproturon by laccase mediator systems. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 119:92-100

Zheng, F, An, Q, Meng, G, Cui, B, K. 2017. A novel laccase from white rot fungus Trametes orientalis : Purification, characterization, and application. International journal of biological macromolecules. 102:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Irnia Nurika, Nur Hidayat, Novianti Adi Rohmanna

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.