IDENTIFIKASI KANDUNGAN ASAM FENOLAT DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN BERAS KETAN MERAH (ORYZA SATIVA VAR. GLUTINOSA)

Hera Sisca Prasmita, Jhauharotul Muchlisyiyah, Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih, Sabrina W Purbasari

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Beras ketan (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa) yang umum dikenal dan dimanfaatkan masyarakat saat ini adalah beras ketan putih dan beras ketan hitam, sedangkan beras ketan merah sangat jarang diketahui oleh sebagian besar masyarakat. Masyarakat di daerah tertentu seperti di Pakis, kabupaten Pacitan telah lama mengenal, menanam, dan mengolah beras ketan merah menjadi snack seperti tape ketan merah, rengginang ketan merah, dan lain sebagainya. Diduga ketan merah sama seperti beras berpigmen lainnya mengandung asam fenolat dan senyawa bioaktif lainnya serta memiliki aktivitas antioksidan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk identifikasi kandungan asam fenolatat pada ketan pecah kulit, ketan sosoh dan bekatulnya. Setiap sampel diekstrak kandungan fenolat bebas, fenolat terikat dan fenolat terkonjugasi kemudian hasil ekstraksi dianalisis total fenolat metode folin-ciocalteau serta aktivitas antioksidan metode DPPH. Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif kuantitatif, dengan tiga kali ulangan. Pada semua sampel, baik pada ketan pecah kulit, ketan sosoh (bagian endosperm) maupun bekatul (bran) mengandung lebih banyak total fenolat terikat dan terkonjugasi (bebas-terikat) daripada fenolat bebas. Aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak senyawa fenolat tertinggi terdapat pada ketan merah pecah kulit meliputi semua jenis fenolat yaitu ekstrak fenolat bebas IC50 4.52 mg/ml, fenolat terkonjugasi 3 IC50 9.92 mg/ml dan fenolat terikat IC50 30.65 mg/ml

 

ABSTRACT

The most common Glutinous rice (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa) is white glutinous rice and black glutinous rice, but red glutinous rice rather infrequently. However, only few people have known about red glutinous rice, local glutinous cultivars in Pakis, Pacitan, East Java. People in there are used to cultivating red glutinous rice for long time ago and processing into various kinds of snack, such as tape, rengginang. Like the other pigmented rice, red glutinous rice contained phenolic and other bioactive compounds which contained antioxidant activity. This study investigated the phenolic compounds of unpolished red glutinous rice, polished red glutinous rice and bran red glutinous rice. Free phenolic compounds was extracted from each samples, as well as the bound-free phenolic and bound phenolic, then analyzed total phenolic and antioxidant activity by using DPPH method. This research was quantitative descriptive with triplicate measurements. The total phenolic content (TPC) of both bound phenolic acids extract and free/ conjugated phenolic acids extract were higher than free phenolic acids extract in all samples, including unpolished red glutinous rice, polished red glutinous rice and bran red glutinous rice. Antioxidant capacity of all kinds of phenolic acids extract was highest in unpolished red glutinous rice, that is free phenolic acids extract IC50 4.52 mg/ml, free/conjugated phenolic acids extract 3 IC50 9.92 mg/ml and bound phenolic acids extract IC50 30.65 mg/ml


Keywords


Antioksidan; Asam Fenolat; Beras Ketan Merah; Deskriptif Kualitatif

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alves, G, H, Ferreira, C, D, Vivian, P, G, Monks, J, L, F, Elias, M, C, Vanier, L, N, de Oliveira, M. 2016. The revisited levels of free and bound phenolics in rice: Effects of the extraction procedure. Food Chemistry. 208:116–123

Balai Besar Penelitian Tanaman Padi. 2015. Padi ketan: rendah kadar amilosa, tinggi kadar amilopektin. Dilihat 26 Oktober 2016.

Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah Pemerintah Provinsi Jawa Timur. 2015. Dokumentasi hasil pelaksanaan pembangunan kabupaten dan kota se-jawa timur tahun 2015. Dilihat 20 November 2016.

Bourvellec, C, L, Guyot, S, Renard, C, M, G, C. 2009. Interactions between apple

(malus x domestica Borkh.) polyphenols and cell walls modulate the extractability of polysaccharides. Carbohydrate Polymers. 75(22):251-261

Chen, G, L, Zhang, X, Chen, S, G, Han, M, D, Gao, Y, Q. 2017. Antioxidant activities and contents of free, esterified and insoluble-bound phenolics in 14 subtropical fruit leaves collected from the south of China. Journal of Functional Foods. 30:290-302

Chiang, P, S, Lee, D, J, Whiteley, C, G, Huang, C, Y. 2017. Antioxidant phenolic compounds from Pinus morrisconicola using compressional-puffing pretreatment and water–ethanol extraction: Optimization of extraction parameters. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 70:7-14

Collinson, S, R, Thielemans, W. 2010. The catalytic oxidation of biomass to new materials focusing on starch, cellulose and lignin. Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 254(15-16):1854-1870

Ernayanti. 2003. Ensiklopedi makanan tradisional di Pulau Jawa dan Pulau Madura. Kementerian Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata, Jakarta

Gunaratne, A, Wu, K, Li, D, Bentota, A, Corke, H, Cai, Y, Z. 2013. Antioxidant activity and nutritional quality of traditional red-grained rice varieties containing proanthocyanidins. Food Chemistry. 138(2-3):1153-1161

Heinonen, I, M, Meyer, A, S, Frankel, E, N. 1998. Antioxidant activity of berry phenolics on human low-density lipoprotein and liposome oxidation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46(10):4107-4112

Kadirantau, DME. 2000. Kajian Isothermi Sorpsi Air (ISA) dan Stabilitas Tepung Ketan selama Penyimpanan. Skripsi. IPB. Bogor

Kaliora, A, C, kogiannou, D, A, A, Kefalas, P, Papassideri, I, S, Kalogeropoulos, N. 2014. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activities of greek herbal infusions; balancing

delight and chemoprevention?. Food Chemistry. 142:233-241

Li, L, Shewry, P, R, Ward, J, L. 2008. Phenolic acids in wheat varieties in the health-grain diversity screen. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56(21): 9732–9739

Ling, W, H, Cheng, Q, X, Ma, J, Wang, T. 2001. Red and black rice decrease atheroscletoric plaque formation and increase antioxidant status in rabbits. J. Nutr. 131(5):1421–1426

Liu, R, H. 2007. Whole grain phytochemicals and health. Journal of Cereal Science. 46(3):207–219

Luo, C, Wang, X, Gao, G, Wang, L, Li, Y, Sun, C. 2013. Identification and quantification of free, conjugate and total phenolic compounds in leaves of 20 sweetpotato cultivars by HPLC–DAD and HPLC–ESI–MS/MS. Food Chemistry. 141(3):2697–2706

María, C, S, Revilla, E, Rodríguez-Morgado, B, Castaño, A, Carbonero, P, Gordillo, B, Cert, R, Parrado, J. 2016. Effect of rice parboiling on the functional properties of an enzymatic extract from rice bran. Journal of Cereal Science. 72:54-59

Manquián-Cerda, K, Escudey, M, Zúñiga, G, Arancibia-Miranda, N, Molina, M, Cruces, E. 2016. Effect of cadmium on phenolic compounds, antioxidant enzyme activity and oxidative stress in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) plantlets grown in vitro. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 133:316-326

Muchlisyiyah, J, Prasmita, H, S, Estiasih, T, Laeliocattleya, R, A, Palupi, R. 2016. Sifat Fungsional tepung ketan merah pragelatinisasi. Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian. 17(3):195-202

Muntana, N, Prasong, S. 2010. Study on total phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities of thai white, red and black rice bran extracts. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 13(4):170-174

Pinelo, M, Arnous, A, Meyer, A, S. 2006. Upgrading of grape skins: significance of plant cell-wall structural components and extraction techniques for phenol release. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 17(11):579-590

Rasyid, HN. 2004. Ensiklopedi Makanan Tradisional Indonesia (Sumatera). Kementerian Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata, Jakarta

Paiva, F, F, Vanier, N, L, de Jesus Berrios, J, Pan, J, de Almeida Villanova, F, Takeoka, G, Elias, M, C. 2014. Physicochemical and nutritional properties of pigmented rice subjected to different degrees of milling. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 35(1):10–17

Pereira-Caro, G, Watanabe, S, Crozier, A, Fujimura, T, Yokota, T, Ashihara, H. 2013. Phytochemical profile of a Japanese black–purple rice. Food Chemistry. 141(3):2821-2827

Qiu, Y, Liu, Q, Beta, T. 2010. Antioxidant properties of commercial wild rice and analysis of soluble and insoluble phenolic acids. Food Chemistry. 121(1):140-147

Rohaeni, W, R, Hastini, T. 2015. Inventarisasi padi lokal di kawasan ciater, subang, provinsi jawa barat. Pros. Sem. Nas. Masy. Biodiv. Indon. 1(2):189-193

Sattaka, P, Pattaratuma, S, Attawipakpaisan, G. 2017. Agricultural extension services to foster production sustainability for food and cultural security of glutinous rice farmers in Vietnam. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences. 38(1):74-80

Shao, Y, Bao, J. 2015. Polyphenols in whole rice grain: genetic diversity and health benefits. Food Chemistry. 180:86-97

Sharma, O, P, Bhat, T, J. 2009. DPPH antioxidant assay revisited. Food Chemistry. 113(4):1202-1205

Shen, Y, Jin, L, Xiao, P, Lu, Y, Bao, J. 2009. Total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity in rice grain and their relations to grain color, size and weight. Journal of Cereal Science. 49(1):106-111

Sompong, R, Siebenhandl-Ehn, S, Linsberger-Martin, G, Berghofer, E. 2011. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of red and black rice varieties from thailand, china and sri lanka. Food

Chemistry. 124(1):132-140

Suhartatik, N, Cahyanto, M, N, Raharjo, S, Rahayu, E, S. 2013. Aktivitas antioksidan antosianin beras ketan hitam selama fermentasi. J. Teknol. dan Industri Pangan. 24(1):115-119

Suhartatik, N, Karyantina, M, Mustofa, A, Cahyanto, M, N, Raharjo, S, Rahayu, E, S. 2013. Stabilitas ekstrak antosianin beras ketan (Oryza sativa var. Glutinosa) hitam selama proses pemanasan dan

penyimpanan. AGRITECH. 33(4):384-390

Sukenti, K, Hakim, L, Indriyani, S, Purwanto, Y, Matthews, P, J. 2016. Ethnobotanical study on local cuisine of the sasak tribe in lombok island, indonesia. Journal of Ethnic Foods. 3(3):189-200

Tanunawong, K, Tewaruth, W. 2010. Extraction and application from black glutinous rice. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 43(3):476-481

Walter, M, Marchesan, E, Massoni, P, F, S, da Silva, L, P, Sartori, G, M, S, Ferreira, R, B. 2013. Antioxidant properties of rice grains with light brown, red and black pericarp colors and the effect of

processing. Food Research International. 50(2):698–703

Wang, W, Guo, J, Zhang, J, Peng, J, Liu, T, Xin, Z. 2015. Isolation, identification and antioxidant activity of bound phenolic compounds present in rice bran. Food Chemistry. 171:40-49

Wu, X, Guan, W, Yan, R, Lei, J, Xu, L, Wang, Z. 2016. Effects of UV-C on antioxidant activity, total phenolics and main phenolic compounds of the melanin biosynthesis pathway in different tissues of button mushroom. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 118:51-58

Yawadio, R, Tanimori, S, Morita, N. 2007. Identification of phenolic compounds isolated from pigmented rices and their aldose reductase inhibitory activities. Food Chemistry. 101(4):1616–1625

Zhang, M, W, Zhang, R, F, Zhang, F, X, Liu, R, H. 2010. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of black rice bran of different commercially available varieties. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58(13):7580-7587

Zaupa, M, Calani, L, Del Rio, D, Brighenti, F, Pellegrini, N. 2015. Characterization of total antioxidant capacity and (poly) phenolic compounds of differently pigmented rice varieties and their changes during domestic cooking. Food Chemistry. 187:338–347

Zhang, H, Shao, Y, Bao, J, Beta, T. 2015. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of breeding lines between the white and black rice. Food Chemistry. 172:630–639




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.jtp.2017.018.01.5

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Hera Sisca Prasmita, Jhauharotul Muchlisyiyah, Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih, Sabrina W Purbasari

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.