SENYAWA-SENYAWA BIOAKTIF PADA RUMPUT LAUT COKELAT SARGASSUM SP. : ULASAN ILMIAH

Abdur Rohim, Yunianta -, Teti Estiasih

Abstract


ABSTRAK

 

 Genus Sargassum termasuk kelas rumput laut cokelat (Phaeophyceae) yang terdiri dari sekitar 400 spesies, dan banyak ditemukan di perairan Indonesia. Sargassum sp. kaya dengan berbagai jenis senyawa bioaktif, yang penting untuk pencegahan maupun terapi berbagai penyakit. Ulasan ilmiah ini dilakukan untuk mengulas jenis-jenis senyawa bioaktif, senyawa bioaktif dominan, dan aktivitas biologisnya dalam genus Sargassum, berdasarkan penelitian-penelitian ilmiah yang telah dipublikasikan. Dari ulasan ilmiah ini dapat diketahui bahwa senyawa-senyawa bioaktif dalam Sargassum sp. meliputi florotanin, terpenoid, chromene, derivat tetraprenyltoluquinol, fukosantin, fukoidan, alginat, asam-asam fenolat, katekin, kuersetin, fukosterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, feofitin A dan sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol. Florotanin, fukosantin, fukoidan, alginat, fukosterol, meroditerpenoid dan gentisic acid adalah senyawa bioaktif dominan dalam Sargassum sp. Meroditerpenoid merupakan senyawa bioaktif khas dalam Sargassum sp., yang tidak diproduksi oleh genus rumput laut lainnya. Aktivitas biologis dari senyawa-senyawa bioaktif Sargassum sp. yaitu antioksidan, antikanker, antitumor, antiinflamasi, antihipertensi, antiobesitas, antidiabetes, antibakteri, antifungi, antivirus, antialergi (ovalbumin dan udang), hipokolesterolemia, neuroprotektif, pencerah kulit dan proteksi ROS intraseluler. Dengan demikian, senyawa-senyawa bioaktif dalam Sargassum sp. potensial untuk mendorong kesehatan.

  

ABSTRACT

 

The genus Sargassum belong to a brown seaweed class (Phaeophyceae) consisting of approximately 400 species, and it is abundant in Indonesian waters. Sargassum sp. are rich in various bioactive compounds, which is important for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. This review was conducted to discuss the bioactive compounds, the dominant bioactive compounds, and their biological activity in genus Sargassum, it is based on published scientific studies. From this review known that the bioactive compounds in Sargassum sp. i.e. phlorotannins, terpenoids, chromene, tetraprenyltoluquinol derivatives, fucoxanthin, fucoidan, alginate, phenolic acids, catechin, quercetin, fucosterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, pheophytin-A and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol. Phlorotannins, fucoxanthin, fucoidan, alginate, fucosterol, meroditerpenoids and gentisic acid are the dominant bioactive compounds in Sargassum sp. Meroditerpenoids are a typical bioactive compounds in Sargassum sp., it is not produced by other seaweed genus. The biological activities of Sargassum sp. bioactive compounds i.e. antioxidant, anticancer, antitumor, antiinflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anti-obesity, antidiabetic, antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-allergic (ovalbumin and shrimp), hypocholesterolemic, neuroprotective, skin lightening and intracellular ROS protection. Therefore, the bioactive compounds in Sargassum sp. are potential to promote health.


Keywords


Aktivitas Biologis; Genus Sargassum; Meroditerpenoid; Senyawa Bioaktif

Full Text:

PDF

References


Balboa, E, -M., Conde, -E., Moure, -A., Falqué, -E., Domínguez, -H., 2013a. In vitro an¬tioxidant properties of crude extracts and compounds from brown algae. Food Chemistry. 138, 1764–1785. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.026

Balboa, E, -M., Rivas, -S., Moure, -A., Domínguez, -H., Parajó, J, -C., 2013b. Simultaneous extraction and depo¬lymerization of fucoidan from Sargas¬sum muticum in aqueous media. Marine Drugs. 11, 4612–4627. https://doi. org/10.3390/md11114612

Barbosa, -M., Valentão, -P., Andrade, P, -B., 2014. Bioactive compounds from mac¬roalgae in the new millennium: implications for neurodegenerative diseases. Marine Drugs. 12, 4934–4972. https://doi.org/10.3390/md12094934

Barot, -M., Kumar J, I, -N., Kumar, R, -N., 2016. Bioactive compounds and anti¬fungal activity of three different sea¬weed species Ulva lactuca, Sargassum tenerrimum and Laurencia obtusa col¬lected from Okha coast, Western In¬dia. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine. 4, 284–289. https://doi.org/10.12980/ jclm.4.2016J5-185

Brkljača, -R., Urban, -S., 2014. Chemical profiling (HPLC-NMR & HPLC-MS), iso¬lation, and identification of bioactive meroditerpenoids from the Southern Australian marine brown alga Sar¬gassum paradoxum. Marine Drugs. 13, 102–127. https://doi.org/10.3390/ md13010102

Cho, H, -S., Cho, J, -Y., Kang, S, -E., Hong, Y, -K., Ahn, D, -H., 2008. Antioxidant activity of mojabanchromanol, a novel chromene, isolated from brown alga Sargassum siliquastrum. Journal of Environmental Biology. 29, 479–84. htt¬ps://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ec13/e7e3a3c8b9a0f6e9dc7bcc5a6b13673d1cdf.pdf

Conde, -E., Moure, -A., Domínguez, -H., 2015. Supercritical CO2 extraction of fatty acids, phenolics and fucoxanthin from freeze-dried Sargassum muticum. Journal of Applied Phycology. 27, 957–964. https://doi. org/10.1007/s10811-014-0389-0

Dewi, -L., 2016. In silico analysis of the poten¬tial of the active compounds fucoidan and alginate derived from Sargassum Sp. as inhibitors of COX-1 and COX- 2. Med. Arch. 70, 172–176. https://doi.org/10.5455/medarh.2016.70.172-176

Dousip, -A., Matanjun, -P., Sulaiman, M, -R., Tan, T, -S., Ooi, Y, B, -H., Lim, T, -P., 2014. Effect of seaweed mixture intake on plasma lipid and antioxidant profile of hyperholesterolaemic rats. Journal of Applied Phycology. 26, 999–1008. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s10811-013-0128-y

Ferawati, -E., Widyartini, D, -S., Insan, -I., 2014. Studi komunitas rumput laut pada berbagai substrat di perairan pantai permisan kabupaten cilacap. Scripta Biologica. 1, 57–62. https://doi.org/10.20884/1.sb.2014.1.1.25

Fertah, -M., Belfkira, -A., Dahmane, -M., Taourirte, -M., Brouillette, -F., 2017. Ex¬traction and characterization of sodium alginate from Moroccan Laminaria digi¬tata brown seaweed. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 10, S3707–S3714. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.05.003

Grosso, -C., Valentão, -P., Ferreres, -F., An¬drade, P, -B., 2015. Alternative and efficient extraction methods for marine-derived compounds. Marine Drugs. 13, 3182–3230. https://doi.org/10.3390/md13053182

Haider, -S., Li, -Z., Lin, -H., Jamil, -K., Wang, B, -P., 2009. In vivo study of antialler¬genicity of ethanol extracts from Sargas¬sum tenerrimum, Sargassum cervicorne and Sargassum graminifolium turn. Eu-ropean Food Research and Technology. 229, 435–441. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-009-1066-4

Ham, Y, -M., Kim, K, -N., Lee, W, J., Lee, N, -H., Hyun, C, -G., 2010. Chemical constituents from Sargassum micracanthum and antioxidant activity. International Journal of Pharmacology. 6, 147–151. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijp.2010.147.151

Heo, S, -J., Ko, S, -C., Kang, S, -M., Kang, H, -S., Kim, J, -P., Kim, S, -H., Lee, K, -W., Cho, M, -G., Jeon, Y, -J., 2008. Cytoprotec¬tive effect of fucoxanthin isolated from brown algae Sargassum siliquastrum against H2O2-induced cell damage. European Food Research and Technology. 228, 145–151. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s00217-008-0918-7

Hwang, P, -A., Hung, Y, -L., Gau, S, -Y., Wu, C, -H., Chou, Y, -C., 2014. Fucoxanthin-containing ethanolic extract from Sar¬gassum hemiphyllum inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Journal of Taiwan Fisheries Research. 22, 93–101. https:// pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2ae8/3b1e6e 29a9b8127ace95ce089556dedd149c.pdf

Ina, -A., Kamei, -Y., 2006. Vitamin B12, a chlo¬rophyll-related analog to pheophytin a from marine brown algae, promotes neurite outgrowth and stimulates differentiation in PC12 cells. Cyto-technology. 52, 181–187. https://doi. org/10.1007/s10616-006-9038-z

Kim, J, -A., Kong, C, -S., Seo, Y, -W., Kim, S, -K., 2010. Sargassum thunbergii extract inhibits MMP-2 and -9 expressions re¬lated with ROS scavenging in HT1080 cells. Food Chemistry. 120, 418–425. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food¬chem.2009.10.022

Li, -Y., Fu, -X., Duan, -D., Liu, -X., Xu, -J., Gao, -X., 2017. Extraction and identification of phlorotannins from the brown alga, Sargassum fusiforme (Harvey) Setchell. Marine Drugs. 15, 49–64. https://doi.org/10.3390/md15020049

Lim, S, -J., Wan Aida, W, -M., Maskat, M, -Y., Mamot, -S., Ropien, -J., Mazita Mohd, -D., 2014. Isolation and antioxidant ca¬pacity of fucoidan from selected Ma¬laysian seaweeds. Food Hydrocolloids. 42, 280–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. foodhyd.2014.03.007

Mikami, -K., Hosokawa, -M., 2013. Biosynthetic pathway and health benefits of fucoxanthin, an algae-specific xan¬thophyll in brown seaweeds. Interna¬tional Journal of Molecular Sciences. 14, 13763–13781. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijms140713763

Munne-bosch, S., 2012. Phenolic acids: Composi¬tion, applications and health benefits. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., USA

Namvar, -F., Mohamad, -R., Baharara, -J., Zafar-Balanejad, -S., Fargahi, -F., Rah¬man, H, -S., 2013. Antioxidant, anti¬proliferative, and antiangiogenesis effects of polyphenol-rich seaweed (Sargassum muticum). BioMed Research International. 2013, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/604787

Ostad, S, -N., Khanavi, -M., Gheidarloo, -R., Sadati, -N., Ardekani, M, R, -S., Nabavi, S, M, -B., Tavajohi, -S., 2012. Cytotox¬icity of fucosterol containing fraction of marine algae against breast and co¬lon carcinoma cell line. Pharmacog¬nosy Magazine. 8, 60–64. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.93327

Payghami, -N., Jamili, -S., Rustaiyan, -A., Saei¬dnia, -S., Nikan, -M., Gohari, A, -R., 2015. Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity and sterol composition of the marine al¬gae, Sargassum glaucescens. Pharmacognosy Research. 7, 314–321. https://doi. org/10.4103/0974-8490.167893

Peng, -J., Yuan, J, -P., Wu, C, -F., Wang, J, -H., 2011. Fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid present in brown seaweeds and diatoms: Metabolism and bioactivities rel¬evant to human health. Marine Drugs. 9, 1806–1828. https://doi.org/10.3390/ md9101806

Peng, -Y., Xie, -E., Zheng, -K., Fredimoses, -M., Yang, -X., Zhou, -X., Wang, -Y., Yang, -B., Lin, -X., Liu, -J., Liu, -Y., 2013. Nutritional and chemical composition and antiviral activity of cultivated seaweed Sargassum naozhouense Tseng et Lu. Marine Drugs. 11, 20–32. https://doi. org/10.3390/md11010020

Plouguerné, -E., de Souza, L, -M., Sassaki, G, -L., Cavalcanti, J, -F., Villela Romanos, M, -T., da Gama, B, A, -P., Pereira, R, -C., Barreto-Bergter, -E., 2013. Antiviral sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) from the Brazilian brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare. Marine Drugs. 11, 4628–4640. https://doi.org/10.3390/ md11114628

Farvin, K, -H., Jacobsen, -C., 2013. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of selected species of seaweeds from Danish coast. Food Chemistry. 138, 1670– 1681. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food¬chem.2012.10.078

Septiana, A, -T., Asnani, -A., 2013. Aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak rumput laut Sar¬gassum duplicatum. Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian. 14, 79–86. https://jtp.ub.ac.id/ index.php/jtp/article/view/396/757

Sivagnanam, S, -P., Yin, -S., Choi, J, -H., Park, Y, -B., Woo, H, -C., Chun, B, -S., 2015. Bi¬ological properties of fucoxanthin in oil recovered from two brown seaweeds using supercritical CO2 extraction. Marine Drugs. 13, 3422–3442. https://doi. org/10.3390/md13063422

Skinner, M., Hunter, D. (Eds.), 2013. Bioactives in fruit: Health benefits and functional foods. Wiley-Blackwell, UK

Syad, A, -N., Shunmugiah, K, -P., Kasi, P, -D., 2013. Antioxidant and anti-cho¬linesterase activity of Sargassum wightii. Pharmaceutical Biology. 51, 1401–1410. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.201 3.793721

Wang, C, -Y., Wu, T, -C., Hsieh, S, -L., Tsai, Y, -H., Yeh, C, -W., Huang, C, -Y., 2015. Antioxidant activity and growth inhi¬bition of human colon cancer cells by crude and purified fucoidan prepara¬tions extracted from Sargassum cristaefolium. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 23, 766–777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2015.07.002

Wang, S, -K., Li, -Y., White, W, -L., Lu, -J., 2014. Extracts from New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida containing fucoxanthin as potential functional biomaterials against cancer in vitro. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 5, 29–42. https://doi. org/10.3390/jfb5020029

Yang, -X., Kang, M, -C., Lee, K, -W., Kang, S, -M., Lee, W, -W., Jeon, Y, -J., 2011. An¬tioxidant activity and cell protective ef¬fect of loliolide isolated from Sargassum ringgoldianum subsp. coreanum. ALGAE. 26, 201–208. https://doi.org/10.4490/ algae.2011.26.2.201

Ye, -H., Zhou, -C., Sun, -Y., Zhang, -X., Liu, -J., Hu, -Q., Zeng, -X., 2009. Antioxidant ac¬tivities in vitro of ethanol extract from brown seaweed Sargassum pallidum. European Food Research and Technology. 230, 101–109. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s00217-009-1147-4

Yende, S, -R., Harle, U, -N., Chaugule, B, -B., 2014. Therapeuti potential and health benefits of Sargassum species. Pharmacognosy Review. 8, 1–7. https://doi. org/10.4103/0973-7847.125514




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.jtp.2019.020.02.5

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Abdur Rohim, Yunianta -, Teti Estiasih

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.