MIKROENKAPSULASI MINYAK ATSIRI DAUN CENGKEH (SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM) DENGAN ENKAPSULAN GELATIN KERBAU MENGGUNAKAN METODE SPRAY DRYING

Masrukan Masrukan, Umar Santoso

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Gelatin merupakan protein yang diperoleh dari hidrolisis parsial kolagen yang ditemukan di dalam kulit, tulang, dan jaringan ikat hewan. Pada umumnya, gelatin diekstrak dari kulit sapi dan babi yang mempunyai permsalahan terkait isu penyakit sapi gila dan kehalalanya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui karakteristik gelatin yang diesktrak dari kulit kerbau dan aplikasinya sebagai enkapsulan pada mikroenkapsulasi minyak atsiri daun cengkeh. Gelatin kulit kerbau diekstrak menggunakan larutan asam klorida (Tipe A) 1%, 70 °C selama 5 jam. Gelatin kulit kerbau diaplikasikan sebagai enkapsulan pada mikroenkapsulasi (spray drying) minyak atsiri daun cengkeh menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan faktor perbedaan konsentrasi gelatin (5%, 7.5%, dan 10%) dan rasio antara minyak atsiri daun cengkeh dengan gelatin (1:10, 1:15 dan 1:20). Karakteristik gelatin kulit kerbau mempunyai kadar air 7.4%, kadar abu 0.06%, kadar lemak 0.04%, kadar protein 89.1%, viskositas 4.8 cP dan kekuatan gel gelatin 155.39 g Bloom. Karakteristik mikrokapsul minyak atsiri daun cengkeh mempunyai kelarutan 79.79%, total minyak 1.10 mg/ml, minyak terperangkap 0.87 mg/ml, dan minyak dipermukaan 0.23 mg/ml. Morfologi mikrokapsul minyak atsiri daun cengkeh berbentuk oval dan tidak beraturan.

 

ABSTRACT

Gelatin is protein obtained from partial hydrolysis of collagen contained in the animal skin, bone, connective tissue. In general, gelatin is extracted from cow and pig skin that have problems related to the issue of mad cow disease and halal. In the present study, gelatin was extracted from buffalo skin collagen and then applied as wall material in microencapsulation of clove leaves essential oil. Characteristics of buffalo skin gelatin and its application in microencapsulation of clove leaves essential oil were studied. Buffalo skin gelatin was extracted using 1% hydrochloric acid (type A) at 70 °C for 5 hours. Gelatin is used as wall material in clove leaf essential oil microencapsulation with spray drying using a completely randomized design (CRD) with different concentrations of gelatin (5%, 7.5%, and 10%) and the ratio between clove leaf essential oil and gelatin. The results showed that gelatin have yield 56.73%, moisture content 7.4%, ash content 0.06%, protein 89.1%, viscosity 4.7 cP, and gel strength 155.39 g Bloom. Microcapsule of clove leaves oil have solubility 79.72%, total oil content 1.10 mg/ml, trapped oil 0.87 mg/ml, and surface oil 0.23 mg/ml. Morphology of microcapsule have oval and irregular shape of granules.


Keywords


Ekstraksi; Kulit kerbau; Kolagen; Mikrokapsul

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.jtp.2019.020.01.5

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