PRODUKSI GLUKOSAMIN BIJI BUAH SIWALAN (BORASSUS FLABELLIFER) MENGGUNAKAN PRE-TREATMENT MAE (MICROWAVE ASSISTED EXTRACTION

Nur Lailatul Rahmah, Sisca Ikke Wulandari, Chastita Hikmatun Nisa

Abstract


 ABSTRAK

 

Biji buah siwalan diketahui memiliki susunan isomer karbohidrat bernama β-pyranosil yang dapat diidentikkan sebagai glukosamin. Glukosamin banyak diproduksi dari sumber he­wani yang dapat memberikan efek samping bagi seseorang yang intolerant terhadap protein he­wani, sehingga diperlukan pengembangan glukosamin nabati seperti biji buah siwalan. Produksi glukosamin dapat ditingkatkan dengan menambahkan prekursor garam ammonium. Selain itu, ekstraksi menggunakan pre-treatment Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) terbukti dapat menin­gkatkan rendemen dan kualitas ekstrak. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menge­tahui perlakuan terbaik dalam produksi glukosamin melalui pre-treatment MAE berdasarkan var­iasi rasio bahan : prekursor dan lama waktu aplikasi MAE. Rancangan percobaan pada penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan 2 faktor perlakuan yaitu rasio bahan : prekursor NH4Cl (b/v) 3 level (1:2 ; 1:3; dan 1:4) serta waktu aplikasi MAE 3 level (5 menit; 10 menit; dan 15 menit) dengan 2 kali ulangan. Perlakuan terbaik dari hasil ekstraksi glukosamin biji buah siwa­lan terdapat pada perlakuan rasio bahan : prekursor NH4Cl (1:2) dan waktu ekstraksi 10 menit dimana ekstrak glukosamin terbaik memiliki kadar 380,33 ppm, pH 4,2, dan rendemen 13,69%

 

ABSTRACT

 

Siwalan seeds are known to have composition of carbohydrate isomers called β-pyranosil which can be identified as glucosamine. Glucosamine is widely produced from animal sources which can provide side effects for someone who intolerance to animal’s protein, so it is necessary to develop vegetable glucosamine such as from siwalan seeds. Glucosamine production can be increased by adding ammonium salt precur­sors. In addition, extraction using pre-treatment Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) was proven to increase yield and quality of extract. Therefore, this study was intended to determine the best treatment for glucosamine production from siwalan seeds through MAE pre-treatment based on variations of material ratio: precursor and the length of MAE time. The experimental design in this study was a randomized block design with 2 treatment factors, namely material ratio: precursor NH4Cl (b/v) 3 levels (1:2; 1:3; and 1:4) and 3 levels of MAE time (5 minutes; 10 minutes; and 15 minutes) with 2 repetitions. The best treatment of glucosamine extracts of a siwalan seeds was on treatment material ratio: precursor NH4Cl (b/v) (1:2) and extraction time 10 minutes where the best extract level of glucosamine was 380.33 ppm, pH 4.2, and yield 13.69% 


Keywords


Ammonium Klorida, Kadar Glukosamin, Prekursor NH4Cl, Waktu MAE

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.jtp.2019.020.02.7

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