PENGARUH SUHU AIR YANG DITAMBAHKAN TERHADAP KUALITAS DONAT KENTANG

Rizka Prima Yunindya, Erni Sofia Murtini

Abstract


ABSTRAK

 

Donat umumnya berbahan baku terigu, namun adakalanya ditambahkan kentang kukus lumat yang biasa disebut donat kentang. Suhu air yang digunakan dalam pembuatan donat kentang oleh masyarakat sangat bervariasi, mulai dari air es sampai air hangat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu air terhadap kualitas donat kentang dan mendapatkan suhu air untuk menghasilkan donat kentang dengan volume pengembangan optimum. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) satu faktor yaitu suhu air (5, 13,75, 22,5, 31,25 dan 40oC) diulang 3 kali. Donat kentang dibuat dengan menambahkan kentang lumat sebanyak 40% (b/b terigu) dalam formula, dicampur hingga terbentuk adonan, diistirahatkan, dibulatkan per 30g, difermentasi, dan digoreng. Kualitas donat berupa volume spesifik, daya serap minyak, jumlah dan luasan pori serta profil tekstur dianalisis. Data diolah menggunakan ANOVA dan bila menujukkan beda nyata (α=5%) dilanjutkan uji BNT (Beda Nyata Terkecil)α=5%. Suhu air optimum ditentukan dengan menggunakan Response Surface Methodology (RSM) One Factor model kuadratik dengan variabel bebas suhu air (X1) dan variabel respon volume pengembangan (Y1). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suhu air berpengaruh nyata terhadap volume spesifik, daya serap minyak dan jumlah pori; namun tidak mempengaruhi tekstur dan luasan pori. Hasil verifikasi RSM menunjukkan bahwa suhu air yang ditambahkan sebesar 24,7oC pada pembuatan donat kentang memberikan respon volume pengembangan yang maksimum sebesar 155,94%. Donat tersebut memiliki  kadar air 28,35%; abu 0,69%; protein 8,30%; lemak 17,68%; karbohidrat 44,97%; total gula 14,67%; serat kasar 5,57%; volume spesifik 4,39 cm3/g; densitas kamba 0,23 g/cm3; daya serap minyak 10,66%; hardness 131,45 N; cohesiveness 0,81; springiness 4,40 mm.

 

Kata Kunci: Donat; Kentang; Optimasi; Suhu Air

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

Donut is generally made from wheat flour, however it can be added other materials such as mashed potatoes to create potatoes donut. People use various ingredients formulation to make it, including variations in temperature of added water, from cold to warm water. This research aims to discover how the temperature of the added water affects the donut quality as well as the optimum temperature resulting to the maximum volume of the donut. The experiment uses Randomized Complete Design using one factor, temperature of added water (5; 13.75; 22.5; 31.25; and 40oC), with three time replications. Potatoes donut is made by adding 40% mashed potatoes (w/w of wheat flour) to the formula, mixed to form dough, rested, rounded per 30g, proofed and fried. The quality parameters of donut such as specific volume, oil absoption, pores number and texture profile are analyzed. Afterwards, the data acquired will be processed by using ANOVA and LSD (Least Significant Difference) at α = 5%. Optimum temperature will be determined using One Factor RSM (Response Surface Methodology) where X1 interprets independent variable, temperature of added water and Y1 interprets response variable, rising volume. The results indicate that added water temperature significantly affects the donut’s specific volume, oil absorption capacity, and  total pores. Insignificant effect, however, is experienced by texture profile and pores area. RSM verification result suggests that added water at 24,7oC results to 155.94% of increasing volume which is the optimum response. In addition, the donut has 28.35% of water content, 0.69% of ash content, 8.3% of protein, 17.68% of fat, 44.97% of carbohydrate, 14.67% of total sugar, 5.57% of crude fiber, specific volume of  4.39 cm3/g, bulk density of 0.23 g/cm3, oil absorption capacity of 10.66%, hardness of 131.45 M, cohesiveness of 0.81, springiness of 4.4 mm.

 

Keywords: Donut, Potato; Optimazion; Water Temperature


Keywords


Donat; Kentang; Optimasi; Suhu Air

Full Text:

PDF

References


AACC International. 2001. Approved Method of Analysis, 11th Ed. Method 10-05.01. Guidelaines for Measurement of Volume by Rapeseed Displacement. Approved October 17, 2001. AACC International, St Paul, MN, USA. http://methods.aaccnet.org/summaries/10-05-01.aspx

Ali, A., Shehzad. A., Khan, M.R., Shabbir, M.A., Amjid M.R. 2012. Yeast, its types and role in fermentation during bread making process-A Review. Pakistan Journal of Food Sciences. 22 (3), 171-179. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328052441_Yeast_its_types_and_role_in_fermentation_during_bread_making_process-_A_review

Angioloni, A., Collar C. 2009. Bread crumb quality assessment: a plural physical approach. European Food Research and Technology. 229, 21-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-009-1022-3

AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of The Analysis of Association of Analytical Chemists International. 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia. https://law.resource.org/pub/

us/cfr/ibr/002/aoac.methods.1.1990.pdf

Bahalwan. F. 2016. Resep Donat Kentang. http://ncc-indonesia.com diakses pada tanggal 13 Agustus 2016 pukul 17.48 WIB.

Chiotellis E and Campbell GM. 2003. Proving of bread dough I modelling the eva-luation of the bubble size distribution. Food and Bioproducts Processing. 81, 194-206. https://doi.org/10.1205/0960308033

Datta, A., K., Sahan, S., Sumnu, G., Keskin, S.O. 2007. Porous media charac-terization of breads baked using novel heating modes. Journal of Food Engineering. 79, 106-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.01.046

Elmehdi, H.M., Page, J.H., and Scanlon, M.G. 2007. Evaluating dough density changes during fermentation by different tech-niques. Cereal Chemistry 84(3), 250-252. https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-84-3-0250

Khatkar, B.S. 2005. Bread Industry and Processes. Bakery Science and Techno-logy. Guru Jambheswar University. Hisar Haryana. India

Lee, M.R., Lee, W.J. 2012. Wheat quality and its effect on bread staling. Journal of Agriculture and Life Science. 46(1), 153-161.

Lee, J.H., Cho A.R., Hong J.Y., Park D.J. Lim S.T. 2017. Physical properties of wheat flour composites dry-coated with micro-particulated soybean hulls and rice flour and their use for low-fat doughnut pre-paration. Journal of Cereal Science. 56, 636-643. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2012.08.011

Mellema, M. 2003. Mechanism and reduction of fat uptake in deep-fat fried foods. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 14, 364-373. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(03)00050-5

Murtini, E. S., Putri, D. A. (2017). Potensi edamame sebagai pengganti kuning telur dalam pembuatan donat mengandung kentang. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan, 28(2), 102-110. https://doi.org/10.6066/jtip.2017.28.2.102

Nouri M, Nasehi B, Samavati V, Mehdizadeh SA. 2017. Optimizing the effects of Persian gum and carrot pomace powder for development of low-fat donut with high fibre content. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre. 9, 39-45

Ramaswamy, U.R., Kabel, M.A., Scols, H.A., and Gruppen, H. 2013. Structural features and water holding capacities of pressed potato fibre polysaccharides. Carbohydrate Polymers. 93, 589-596. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.12.057

Rosell, C.M.,5 Collar, C. 2008. Effect of various enzymes on dough rheology and bread quality. In: Porta, R., Di Pierro, P., Mariniello L, (Eds.) Recent Research Development in Food Biotechnology, Enzyme as Additive or Processing Aids. Research Signpost. 165-183.

Sahlstrøm, S., Shelton D.R. 2004. Factors influencing yeast fermentation and the effect of LMW sugars and yeast fermentation on hearth bread quality. Cereal Chemistry. 81(3), 328-335. https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.2004.81.3.328

Sari, F.K., Nurhayati, Djumarti, 2013. Ekstraksi pati resisten dari tiga varietas kentang lokal yang berpotensi sebagai kandidat prebiotik. Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian. I(2), 38-42. https://jurnal.unej.ac.id/index.php/BIP/article/view/510

Shih, F.F., Daigle, K.W., Clawson E.L. 2001, Development of low oil uptake donuts. Journal of Food Science. 66 (1), 620-627. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.13652621.2001.tb15596.x

The Artisan Baker. 2016. Temperature Control Baking. http://www.theartisan.net/temperature_control_baking_1.htm diakses pada tanggal 1 Desember 2016 pukul 00.46 WIB.

Tian Y.Q., Li, Y., Jin, Z.Y., Xu X.M., Wang J.P., Jiao, A.Q., Yu B., Talba T. 2009. β-cyclodextrin: A new approach in bread staling. Thermochimica Acta. 489, 22-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2009.01.025

Tsai, C.L., Sugiyama, J., Shibata, M., Kokawa, M., Fujita, K., Tsuta, M., Nabetani, H., and Araki, T. 2012. Changes in the texture and viscoelastic properties of bread containing rice porridge during storage. Bioscience. Biotechnology. Biochemistry. 76(2), 331-335. https://doi.org/10.1271/

bbb.110722

USDA. 2018. Basic Report: 01125, Egg Yolk Raw Fresh.United States Department of Agriculture. Washington DC, USA. https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods

Velez-Ruiz, J.F, Sosa-Morales, M.E. 2003. Evaluation of physical properties of dough of donuts during deepfat frying at different temperatures. International Jour-nal of Food Properties. 6(2), 341-353. https://doi.org/10.1081/JFP-120017813

Wang, P., Jin, Z., Xu, X. 2015. Physicochemical alterations of wheat gluten proteins upon dough formation and frozen storage - A review from gluten. glutenin and gliadin perspectives. Trend in Food Science and Technology. 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2015.10.005.

Yuwono, S., Susanto, T. 1998. Pengujian Fisik Pangan. Universitas Brawijaya. Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian. Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian. Malang.

Zhu, F. 2016. Staling of Chinese Steamed Bread: Quantification and Control. Journal Review of Trends in Food Science and Technology. 55, 118-127. https://doi.org/

1016/j.tifs.2016.07.009




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.jtp.2020.021.02.3

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Rizka Prima Yunindya, Erni Sofia Murtini

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.