OPTIMASI KONSENTRASI PELARUT DAN WAKTU EKSTRAKSI PEKTIN KULIT JERUK MANIS (CITRUS SINENSIS) DENGAN METODE MASERASI

Authors

  • Widya Dwi Rukmi Putri Department of Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Brawijaya http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6924-1927
  • Anggi Triwardiningsih Nasution Department of Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Brawijaya
  • Margaretha Hanna Tiffani Department of Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Brawijaya
  • Aditya Wardana Department of Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Brawijaya

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.jtp.2021.022.01.5

Keywords:

Ekstraksi, Kulit Jeruk Manis (Citrus sinensis), Pektin, Response Surface Methodology

Abstract

  ABSTRAKLimbah kulit jeruk dapat dimanfaatkan menjadi pektin dengan cara diekstrak. Pektin banyak digunakan pada industri pangan, salah satunya stabilizer. Penelitian bertujuan mengeta­hui konsentrasi pelarut dan lama waktu yang optimum pada proses ekstraksi untuk mendapat­kan rendemen, total pektin, dan tingkat kecerahan yang terbaik. Rancangan penelitian meng­gunakan Response Surface Methodology dengan Central Composite Design melalui software Design Expert 7.1.5. Kombinasi faktor perlakuan yaitu, konsentrasi asam oksalat (%) dan lama waktu ekstraksi (menit). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai optimum konsentrasi pelarut asam oksalat sebesar 0,22% dengan lama waktu ekstraksi 90 menit 16 detik, menghasilkan 16,78% rendemen; 10,59% total pektin; dan 63,56 (L) tingkat kecerahan pektin. Kemudian, dilakukan karakterisasi pektin optimasi dengan hasil untuk kadar air 9,87%, berat ekivalen 901,60; kadar metoksil 5,59%; kadar asam galakturonat 51,45%; dan derajat esterifikasi 61,69%. Pektin yang dihasilkan sudah sesuai dengan standar International Pectin Producers Association (IPPA), kecuali pada berat ekivalen. Pektin hasil optimasi termasuk pektin metoksil rendah.Kata kunci : Ekstraksi; Kulit Jeruk Manis (Citrus sinensis); Pektin; Response Surface Methodology  ABSTRACTOrange peels waste can be utilized by extracting the pectin. Pectin used by food industry as stabi­lizer. This research aims to determine the optimum solvent concentration and duration in the extraction process to get the best yield, total pectin, and brightness level of pectin. Design of this study uses Response Surface Methodology with Central Composite Design through Design Expert 7.1.5 software. Combination of factors used are oxalic acid solvent concentration (%) and extraction duration (minutes). Results of opti­mum concentration of oxalic acid solvent used for extraction is 0.22% and optimum time of extraction is 90 minutes 16 seconds, resulting 16.78% for yield; 10.59% for total pectin; and 63.56 (L) for brightness level of pectin. The characterization of the optimized pectin are as follows : water content of 9,87%; equivalent weight of 901.60; methoxyl content of 5.59%; galacturonic acid level of 51.45%; and esterification content of 61.69%. The result of characterizations pectin fitted accordance with the International Pectin Producers Association (IPPA) standard, except for equivalent weight. Optimized pectin classified as low methoxyl pectin type. Keywords : Extraction; Sweet peel orange (Citrus sinensis); Pectin; Response Surface Methodology

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2021-04-30

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