PERUBAHAN KARAKTERISTIK FISIKOKIMIA, HIDROFOBISITAS DAN KRISTALINITAS PADA PATI JAGUNG VARIETAS BISI-18 TERASETILASI

Nita Maria Rosiana, Eni Harmayani, Yudi Pranoto

Abstract


ABSTRAK

 

Jagung merupakan salah satu komoditas pertanian yang berpotensi besar untuk dikembangkan secara komersial. Cookies yang dibuat dari 100% tepung jagung mengakibatkan penerimaan konsumen yang menurun karena tekstur cookies yang keras. Kekerasan pada cookies dari jagung dapat pula disebabkan oleh kemampuan pati dalam mengikat air dan lemak yang rendah serta struktur pati yang kompak. Salah satu metode modifikasi pati yang digunakan untuk memperbaiki sifat pati adalah asetilasi. Persyaratan derajat asetilasi pada pati yang dapat digunakan untuk menjadi produk olahan adalah 0,01-0,2. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mendapatkan rekayasa proses asetilasi untuk mendapatkan derajat substitusi 0,2 dan mengetahui perubahan karakteristik fisikokimia, hidrofobisitas dan kristalinitas pada pati dengan derajat substitusi 0,2. Jagung varietas Bisi-18 yang digunakan untuk penelitian berasal dari Kabupaten Bantul, Yogyakarta. Tahapan penelitian meliputi ekstraksi pati jagung dan modifikasi asetilasi dengan Rancangan Acak Kelompok. Faktor 1 adalah konsentrasi asetat anhidrat (2,4,6%) dan faktor 2 adalah waktu reaksi (5,10,15 menit). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa proses asetilasi terjadi pada pH 8-8,4; suhu reaksi 28-30oC selama 15 menit dengan konsentrasi asetat anhidrat 4% (v/w) menghasilkan pati terasetilasi dengan derajat subtitusi 0,2. Pati jagung tersebut mengalami perubahan karakteristik yaitu lebih hidrofob dan kristalinitas menurun. Pati terasetilasi dengan derajat substitusi 0,2 berpotensi untuk dijadikan bahan baku kue kering seperti cookies.


ABSTRACT

 

Corn is one of the agricultural commodities with great potential to be developed commercially. Cookies from 100% corn flour resulted in reduced consumer acceptance, caused by hard cookies. The hardness of the cookies from corn can also be caused by the low ability of starch to binding water and fat, and the compact structure of starch. One of the starch modification methods used to improve starch properties is acetylation. The degree of acetylation in starch that can be used to be a processed product is 0.01-0.2. The aims of this study were obtaining an acetylation process to obtain a degree of substitution of 0.2 and to determine the changes in the characteristics of physicochemical, hydrophobicity, and crystallinity of starch with a degree of substitution of 0.2. Corn variety Bisi-18 used for research comes from Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta. The research stages included extraction of corn starch and modification of acetylation with a randomized block design. The first factor was the concentration of acetate anhydrous (2,4,6%) and the second factor was the reaction time (5,10,15 minutes). The results showed that the acetylation process occurred at pH 8-8.4; reaction temperature is 28-30oC for 15 minutes with  4% (v/w) acetate anhydrous to produce degree of substitution 0,2 acetylated corn starch. The characteristic of degree of substitution 0,2 acetylated corn starch is more hydrophobic and decreased crystallinity compared to natural starch. Acetylated starch with degree of substitution 0,2 has potential to be used as raw material for pastries such as cookies.


Keywords


Asetat Anhidrat; Derajat Subtitusi; Kekompakan

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.jtp.2021.022.02.3

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