APLIKASI ULTRASOUND ASSISTED EXTRACTION UNTUK PRODUKSI MINYAK BAWANG PUTIH VARIETAS LOKAL

Authors

  • Kurniawan Yuniarto University of Mataram
  • Cahyo Mustiko Okta Muvianto University of Mataram
  • Ernia Ernia University of Mataram

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.jtp.2021.022.03.3

Keywords:

Bawang Putih, Bioaktif, Ekstraksi, Kavitasi, Minyak

Abstract

                                               ABSTRAK Operasi ekstraksi bahan hasil pertanian melibatkan proses pelepasan bahan aktif dari dalam jaringan tanaman. Teknik ekstraksi komponen bioaktif menggunakan ultrasonik atau ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) menjadi salah satu metode yang mulai diminati karena efek dari kavitasi yang ditimbulkan dapat mendukung efisiensi waktu, penggunaan pelarut lebih sedikit dan tidak invasif. Penelitian ini memanfaatkan gelombang ultrasonik dengan frekuensi 37 kHz untuk ekstrasi minyak bawang varietas lokal jenis Bagong, Tunggal dan Sangga. Pengeringan awal irisan bawang putih dengan suhu 60 oC selama 6 jam diterapkan untuk mengurangi kadar air awal. Selanjutnya, UAE diterapkan untuk ekstrak irisan bawang putih dengan variabel waktu ekstraksi terdiri atas 20 menit, 30 menit, dan 45 menit. Ekstrak kasar disaring dan diuapkan menggunakan vacuum evaporator suhu 60 oC selama 15 menit. Selanjutnya, minyak bawang putih di sentrifus dengan kecepatan 3000 rpm selama 15 menit untuk memisahkan partikel terlarut. Hasil penelitian di peroleh rendemen tertinggi di peroleh dari jenis bawang putih Sangga dan waktu ekstraksi 45 menit dengan hasil rendemen sebesar 12,35%. Nilai indeks bias tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata pada perlakuan jenis bawang putih maupun lama pemberian gelombang ultrasonik dalam rentang 20 sampai 45 menit dengan nilai indeks bias sebesar 1,3678–1,3741. Hasil pengukuran GCMS menunjukkan kandungan komponen allyl trisulfida paling tinggi pada varietas bawang Putih Tunggal sebesar 11,19%. Selanjutnya, aktivitas antioksidan akan semakin besar pada minyak atsiri yang terekstrak dengan periode UAE semakin panjang dengan nilai aktivitas antioksidan paling tinggi pada jenis bawang putih Sangga dengan lama ekstraksi 45 menit.                                                      ABSTRACT Extraction of agricultural products involves bioactive compound release within plant cellular. Recently, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) has been developed as an extraction technique due to the cavitation effect that implies processing efficiencies such as time requirement, solvent use and noninvasive. This research applied ultrasonic wave at 37 kHZ frequency to encourage essential oil of local garlic: Tunggal, Bagong and Sangga. Garlic chip was predried in the dryer at 60 oC for 6 hours to reduce initial moisture content. The UAE used time variable into three levels i.e 20 min, 30 min, and 45 min and was applying 90% pro analyst ethanol solvent. The crude garlic essential oil extract was filtered and evaporated using a vacuum evaporator at 60 oC for 15 min. Then, centrifugation was proceeded at 3000 rpm for 15 min to produce pure garlic essential oil. This research resulted that Sangga garlic producing a higher essential oil yield than Tunggal and Bagong garlic where the highest yield was 12.35% for 45 min time extraction. The oil essential did not show any different result of the oil refractive index parameter where the refractive index was measured between 1.3678 and 1.3741. The GC-MS observed allyl trisulfide compound in all of the local garlic and Tunggal garlic was the largest at about 11.19%. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity will be greater in essential oils extracted with a longer UAE period with the highest antioxidant activity value in Sangga garlic with 45 minutes of extraction time.

Author Biographies

Kurniawan Yuniarto, University of Mataram

Program Studi Teknik Pertanian , Fakultas Teknologi Pangan dan Agroindustri

Cahyo Mustiko Okta Muvianto, University of Mataram

Program Studi Teknik Pertanian , Fakultas Teknologi Pangan dan Agroindustri

Ernia Ernia, University of Mataram

Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Fakultas Teknik

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Published

2021-12-23

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